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' ^ZOOLOGICAL SERIES
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
Volume 24 CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER 19, 1939 No. 8
BY FRITZ HAAS
CURATOR OF LOWER INVERTEBRATES
FIRST ILLINOIS RECORD OF A JAPANESE POND SNAIL
On November 18, 1938, I found a dead, not full-grown but
identifiable specimen of Cipangopaludina malleata Reeve, in the
outer lagoon in Jackson Park, Chicago.
It is entered in Field Museum Cata-
logue as No. 11438 and is figured here-
with (fig. 7).
I am indebted to Mr. E. Strandine,
of Northwestern University, and to Mr.
F. C. Baker, of the University of Illinois,
for the statement that to their knowledge
this species has never been recorded from
Illinois; nor does it seem to have been found
in the adjacent states. This Japanese in-
truder has hitherto been known only from
cago; Field Mus. No. 11438. O n the Atlantic THfcUi^ARireCBflto of the
species in the Unj^'pttes^ggbe found
in various volumes of The Nautilus. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
REVERSED SPECIMENS OF CAMPELOMA FROM THE CHICAGO AREA
Some information concerning reversed specimens of shells belong-
ing to the genus Campeloma Rafinesque has been assembled by
F. C. Baker in his Fresh Water Mollusca of Wisconsin (Bull. Wis.
Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv., 70, 1928). Additional data recorded here
refer to the species integrum Say and decisum Say.
Baker (I.e., p. 67) says with reference to Campeloma integrum that
he found only one reversed specimen among 160 normal ones, and that
none were seen as embryos. Field Museum has one reversed female
No. 450 93
94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24
of integrum (No. 11506), collected on the Wooded Island in Jackson
Park, Chicago, by H. W. Clark, in March, 1903, which contained
21 embryos, one of which is reversed. This seems to be the first
indication that reversed specimens may transmit their anomaly to
their offspring, but the one instance is, of course, inadequate for
definite conclusions on this point.
Baker (I.e., p. 60) remarks that reversed specimens of Campeloma
decisum are very rare, "but one immature shell occurring among
over a hundred adult specimens and but four among 260 embryonic
young." In the Field Museum collection is a reversed immature
shell (No. 11479), found in the outer lagoon in Jackson Park, Chicago,
by the writer, on December 6, 1938. A normal female shell (No.
11508), collected in the Kankakee River near Shelby, Lake County,
Indiana, by 0. P. Hay, on September 20, 1895, includes one reversed
embryo among the four contained in it; and there is another reversed
embryonic shell contained in a collection of normal decisum from the
same locality (No. 5256).
TAXONOMY OF THE LARGER GROUPS OF ASIATIC VIVIPARIDS
In arranging the Viviparidae of Field Museum I find it necessary
to revise the status of some generic and subgeneric names bestowed
on Asiatic viviparid snails. The most modern synoptic view of the
family, that of Thiele (Handb. syst. Weichtierk., pp. 114-116, 1929),
is out of date on account of Rohrbach's anatomical investigations
(Arch. Molluskenk., 69, 1937), which prove that the Asiatic viviparids
(with the exception only of those from Asia Minor belonging to
Viviparus proper) do not even group with the Viviparinae; they are
closely related to the African genus Bellamya and constitute with it
the subfamily Bellamyinae. Rohrbach (I.e.) clearly showed that the
many Asiatic species which had been attributed to true Viviparus
present anatomical features which can only be compared to those
of the African genus Bellamya, but he did not discuss the question
of their generic position. My work necessitated going into this
question, and I arrive at the arrangement of the genera and sub-
genera of the Asiatic Bellamyinae shown below. It seems that two
different groups of genera may be distinguished as follows:
A. A group of thin-shelled, generally larger forms, almost destitute
of shell-adornments like knots, ribs, and keels. It contains
the following genera:
Bellamya Jousseaume, 1886 (type, Paludina bellamya Jouss.),
to which most of the African viviparids belong and which
1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 95
is represented in Asia by species from India (dissimilis
Muell., bengalensis Lam., etc.), from the Sunda Islands
(e.g. javanica v.d. Busch), from the Philippine Islands
(e.g. angularis Muell.), and so on.
Lecythoconcha Annandale, 1921 (type, Paludina lecythis Benson),
Idiopomus Pilsbry, 1901 (type, Vivipara henzadensis Pilsbry),
B. A group of thick-shelled genera with generally rather convex
whorls, often provided with raised ornamentations in the
shape of knots, keels, and even spines.
Mekongia Crosse and Fischer, 1876 (type, Paludina jullieni
Deshayes), from French Indo-China, a rather highly
specialized genus which is probably derived from forms like
Eyriesia P. Fischer, 1885 (type Paludina eyriesi Morelet), from
Cambodia, also a highly specialized form.
Cipangopaludina Hannibal, 1912P*($ype, Paludina malleata
Reeve), from Japan, China, and the Amur province of
Angulyagra Rao, 1931 [= Dactylochlamys Rao, 1925, not Lauter-
born, 1901] (type, Paludina oxytropis Benson), from India,
Burma, and the Philippines. Angulyagra proper comprises
by far most of the species belonging to this genus.
Acanthotropis 1 subgen. nov. created for Vivipara partelloi
Bartsch from Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippine Islands,
is characterized by the possession of a distinct keel at the
circumference of the two last whorls; this keel is ornamented
by hollow spines curving back, like those in the African fresh-
water snail Tiphobia E. A. Smith (thiarid) or in the Phyllo-
notus section of Murex.
Heterogen Annandale, 1921 (type, Heterogen turris Annandale),
is known only from Lake Biwa, Japan.
Laguncula Benson, 1842 (type, Laguncula pulchella Benson),
from Chusan Island, a somewhat problematic genus.
Taia Annandale, 1918 (type, Vivipara naticoides Theobald),
seems to have a rather wide distribution in Asia, where it is
, spine; rpoiris, keel.
96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24
split up into the following distinguishable groups or
Taia proper is confined to India and Burma.
Temnotaia Annandale, 1919 (type, Taia incisa Annandale),
comes from Burma.
Sinotaia 1 subgen. nov. (type, Paludina quadrata Benson)
seems to comprise the Chinese species hitherto attributed
to Viviparus, which group around quadratus Benson and
angulatus Benson. They are characterized by the narrow,
rather thick shell with an expanded columellar thickening,
mostly blackish towards its outer margin, and by the indica-
tion or strong development of keels on the upper, middle,
and lower part of the whorls.
Torotaia 2 subgen. nov. (type, Vivipara clemensi Bartsch)
comprises two Philippine species, mainitensis Bartsch and
clemensi Bartsch. Its characteristics are the broad, some-
what scalarid spire, the ventricose whorls and the presence
of some ribs on the whorls which may assume the strength
of keels. The umbilicus is always closed and the lower
margin of the aperture is protracted to some degree near
Margarya Nevill, 1877 (type, Margarya melanoides Nevill), from
Rivularia Heude, 1890 (type, Paludina (Melantho') auriculata
Martens) from China.
A NEW LOCALITY FOR RHINOCORYNE PACIFICA
Rhinocoryne pacifica, most striking of all the living Cerithiidae,
originally described by Sowerby (1833) as Cerithium pacificum, seems
by no means abundant. E. von Martens (Biol. Centr. Amer.,
Mollusca, p. 574, 1900) has summed up our knowledge of this species,
and apparently it has not been mentioned in the literature since.
Von Martens established the subgenus Rhinocoryne for this species,
and this is now regarded as of generic rank.
In these references it is mentioned only from the Pacific coast of
both Americas from Arica (southern Peru) in the south to Punta
Arenas (southwestern Costa Rica) in the north. Field Museum has a
lot of 14 specimens of Rhinocoryne pacifica (No. 11521), from
i, China; Taia, generic name.
2 Torus, a raised ornament; Taia, generic name.
1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 97
Corinto, Nicaragua, about 100 miles north of the most northern
locality hitherto known.
The specimens were collected by S. E. Meek, in April, 1906, partly
in living state, partly inhabited by hermit crabs.
POLYPYLIS, AN APPARENTLY OVERLOOKED SUBGENUS OF SEGMENTINA
The subgeneric name Polypylis was proposed by Pilsbry (Proc.
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 166, 1906) for some east Asiatic species of
planorbids formerly attributed to the European genus Segmentina
Fleming and grouping around Planorbis largillierti Dkr. These
species differ from Segmentina proper in the following characters,
using Pilsbry's own words: "The shell is less compressed and not
carinate, but glossy with deeply clasping whorls. The parietal lamina
is obliquely transverse, the others transverse, basal long, a shorter
one in the outer wall, and one or two in the upper margin. There are
several or many barriers." True Segmentina on the contrary is
characterized by "a very glossy, flattened shell with acutely angular
periphery, simple thin lip, deeply embracing whorls, and barriers
composed of three laminae (parietal, basal, and upper) transverse to
the whorl, leaving a narrow, three-branched space between them."
These differences may be seen in the accompanying figures.
Figure 8, b, shows the disposition of barriers in the European Segmen-
tina nitida Mueller; figure 8, a, exhibits that
of the Chinese Segmentina hemisphaerula
Benson; figure 8, b, is copied from Ross-
maessler (Icon., 1, fig. 114); figure 8, a, is
new. In both cases the last part of the
last whorl has been removed in order a b
to show clearly the set of laminae. These ^ FIG. ^8. a, Segmentina
figures show that the east Asiatic seg-
mentinas cannot be united to Segmentina showing disposition of inner
j ,1 , T,., , . , , . laminae. X3. b, Segmentina
proper, and that Pilsbry was right in (Segmentina) nitida Mueller,
proposing for them the new subgenus showing inner laminae (from
V, ,. Rossmaessler). X3.
Though plainly described, this name escaped the attention of the
recorders. Neither the Zoological Record, the Nomenclator generum et
subgenerum animalium, nor Thiele, in his comprehensive Handbuch
der systematischen Weichtierkunde, mentions it; even Mori, the most
recent author on east Asiatic planorbids (Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto
Imp. Univ., B, 14, 1938) omits it. Germain, who worked on Plan-
orbidae in 1921-24 (Rec. Indian Mus., 21), had noticed it, but, as
98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24
he says (p. 164), he did not judge the differences emphasized by
Pilsbry sufficiently important to warrant the new subgenus; he
therefore groups all the east Asiatic species which may belong here
with true Segmentina.
From Germain's list of species we can clearly see which forms
have the characteristic disposition of the inner laminae, and thus
belong to the subgenus Polypylis. These are:
Planorbis hemisphaerula Benson, 1842. Planorbis largittierti
Dunker, 1867, is synonymous with this species; thus the genotype
of Polypylis, for which Pilsbry had designated Planorbis largittierti
Dunker, automatically becomes Planorbis hemisphaerula Benson.
Planorbis calathus Benson, 1850. Germain cites this species as
Segmentina calatha, but the specific name ought to be calathus, this
word being a noun meaning a basket.
Segmentina lucida Gould, 1859 (= Segmentina usta Gould, 1859).
Planorbis swinhoei H. Adams, 1870.
These species must now be cited as Segmentina (Polypylis)
hemisphaerula Benson, Segmentina (Polypylis) calathus Benson, and
Segmentina (Polypylis) swinhoei H. Adams. The first lives in
southern China, including the Riu-kiu Islands; the second is found
in British India and Ceylon, in Siam, in Java, and in the Aroe
Islands, and the third in the Riu-kiu Islands and in Japan; the last
is known only from the Island of Formosa and is occasionally con-
sidered a mere subspecies of lucida Gould.
The rest of the species included by Germain in the Asiatic seg-
mentinas seem to differ from Polypylis in the absence of inner
WHAT IS LIMNAEUS SORDIDUS KUESTER, 1862?
Kuester described a Limnaeus sordidus supposedly from Central
America in his monograph of the genus Limnaea (in Martini-Chem-
nitz, Illustr. Conch. Cab., (2), 1 , Abt. 17b, p. 58, figs. 15-16, pi. 12, 1862) .
This species was not reported from Central America by later collec-
tors, and came to be considered a spurious one, except by von Mar-
tens. Von Martens believed that it might be an American species
after all (Biol. Centr. Amer., Mollusca, p. 379, 1899), as it very much
resembled some of Haldeman's Limnaea palustris in shape and in its
latticed sculpture; he furthermore noticed in the Dunker collection,
now in the Berlin museum, a shell supposedly originating in Central
America, which resembled sordidus in every respect. On the other
hand, he had never seen a palustris form from Central America, and
1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 99
hence decided that Kuester's sordidus might be a North American
shell comparable to L. elodes Say. F. C. Baker, in his monograph of
the American limnaeids (Spec. Publ. Chicago Acad. Sci., No. 3, p.
313, 1911), went so far as to combine sordidus and palustris, mis-
trusting the locality "Central America," on the ground that the
palustris group had never been found south of the Rio Grande.
In the collections in Field Museum I find four specimens of a
limnaeid (No. 11466) from Lake Chalco, central Mexico, collected
by S. E. Meek, in April, 1901, which,
though in a poor state of preservation,
undoubtedly belong to the palustris group.
They combine the palustris shape of the
shell with the sculpture of vertical and
horizontal ridges, forming the fenestration
described by Kuester as characteristic of
FlG. 9. Stagnicola (Stag- r-'-wj-n //> emv/iWi/Q nnH in'cihlp in rrnr rr>rw
nicola} palustris sordida Kue- ^mnaeus soraiaus, ana visioie in our copy
ster (from Kuester's original of Kuester's original figure (fig. 9). The
pictures of Limnaeus sordidus . TV u ** j-zr
Kuester). xi. specimens m Field Museum differ from
those figured by Kuester in being some-
what more slender, but not so much so as to prevent their
identification with sordidus.
As there is no further doubt that a form of palustris, apparently
distinguishable from the typical one and from the North American
subspecies of palustris, exists in Mexico, and as Kuester's sordidus
is based on a fenestrated Mexican form of palustris, I do not hesitate
to name the Chalco specimens Stagnicola (Stagnicola} palustris
THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PLANORBULA
Apparently no author has hitherto assigned any South American
planorbid to Planorbula, though earlier workers did know that some
species in question are provided with internal shell septa; these
include Clessin (Martini-Chemnitz, Illustr. Conch. Cab., (2), 1, Abt.
17, Planorbis), when describing his Planorbis janeirensis (I.e., p. 122,
fig. 3, pi. 18, 1885), and Fred Baker, when publishing his Segmentina
paparyensis (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1913, p. 662, figs. 9-11,
pi. 26, 1914) . Lutz, the last reviser of the Brazilian planorbids (Mem.
Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 10, pp. 45-61, pis. 15-18, 1918) dealt only with
their specific discrimination and did not touch the problem of their
generic position; he, therefore, left paparyensis with Segmentina.
100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24
When I found some specimens of "Segmentina" paparyensis
F. Baker in a lot of shells from northeastern Brazil, which had been
entrusted to me for classification by Dr. 0. Schubart, then in Recife,
and on which I shall report elsewhere, I was immediately struck by
the idea that this species, together with Planorbis janeirensis Clessin,
of which it is only a local subspecies, belongs to Planorbula. It is
obvious also that they differ so much from this genus that they have
to be placed in a distinct new subgenus, for which I propose the
name Obstructio (for reasons which will be obvious), designating
Planorbis janeirensis Clessin as the type. The characteristic features
of this new subgenus, in comparison with true Planorbula, are as
Thickening of the lip constantly wanting; disposition of the six
internal septa as follows: two parietal septa subequal, at least never
so different in size as in true Planorbula; four palatal septa, the two
upper nearly horizontal.
There is in Africa a planorbid group of snails which, from the
anatomical data available (Connolly, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr., 12, pp.
196-199, fig. 25, 1925), and from conchological characters, must
belong to Planorbula. This group is represented by Planorbula
pfeifferi Krauss and its allies. Jickeli established the subgenus
Planorbulina f or it (Nova Acta Acad. Leop. Carol., 37, p. 221, 1874).
NOTES ON VALVATIDS WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBGENUS
In a recent paper (Uber potientielle Skulpturbildung bei Valvata
(Cincinna) piscinalis antiqua Sow., Arch. Moll. Kde., 70, pp.
41-45, 1938) I have described what I called a "potential shell-
sculpture" in the European Valvata (Cincinna) piscinalis antiqua
Sow. The specimens considered were collected in Lake Lucerne,
Switzerland, and are distinguished from ordinary ones from other
localities by a faint but unmistakable sculpture of radial rib-like
striae and of spirally revolving lines. The fact that only valvatas
from lacustrine habitats show such a shell-sculpture leads me to the
conclusion that the lacustrine environment is in some way correlated
with sculpturing in fresh-water mollusk shells.
In the paper mentioned above I gave a list of what is known about
palaearctic sculptured Valvata, both recent and fossil. Heavily
sculptured forms are always restricted to some lacustrine basin, and
smooth, unsculptured valvatas of Europe and Asia, inhabiting vari-
ous fresh-water habitats, develop traces of sculpture only when they
occasionally live in a lake; they thus prove that the formation of
shell-sculpture is an inborn characteristic of valvatids, which remains
1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 101
inactive in the non-lacustrine environment, but becomes potential
when the habitat, for reasons still unknown, but certainly in some
relation to lacustrine life, encourages its development. Such develop-
ment is only phaenotypic.
Many species of valvatids restricted to lacustrine basins have
acquired rather conspicuously developed shell-sculpture: the sub-
genus Megalovalvata Lindholm from Lake Baikal; Costovalvata
Polinski, from Lake Ochrida in Albania; and the uncoiled tubiform
fossil valvatid genus Orygoceras Brusina in the southeastern European
Pliocene the so-called "Neogene Lake." In all these cases the
presence of sculpture has surely become a genotypic, inheritable
feature. The presence of a keeled sculpture in the North-American
subgenus Tropidina H. and A. Adams, is probably due to such a geno-
typic feature acquired during prolonged lacustrine life and become
invariable, so that even after the species thus adorned emigrated
from their original habitat to enter other fresh-water habitats, the
sculpture remained fixed.
All the palearctic lacustrine and sculptured valvatids have
received subgeneric names in correspondence with the type of their
sculpture and their geographic isolation. Spiral sculpture seems to
be more frequent than radial, only one subgenus being hitherto
known which exhibits the latter type, Costovalvata from Lake Ochrida;
but in this subgenus the radial sculpture is not clearly shown, as it
is crossed by the traces of a spiral sculpture around the circumference
of the whorls. There are a few valvatids, however, which present
definitely radial sculpture, which may be restricted to the apical
whorls or which may extend over the whole shell, but which can
always be discerned. These features distinguish the species in
question from all other living or extinct valvatas, and I therefore
feel justified in uniting them into a new subgenus which also has some
characteristic and differentiating anatomical characters and which
also apparently differs from the rest by some ecological habits. I
call this new group :
Pleurovalvata 1 subgen. nov.
Type, Valvata sincera Say.
Shell. Trochiform, globose or depressed, exhibiting always on
the apical whorls and usually on the whole shell surface a regular,
radial striation which is often raised into thin, elevated, rib-like
1 xXeupoj', rib; Valvata, generic name.
102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24
Jaw. Serrations on the lower margins of plates much finer and
more numerous than in other subgenera.
Radula. Central tooth either higher or larger than in other
Remarks. Valvata lewisi Currier also belongs in this subgenus.
The fossil Californian Valvata densestriata Pilsbry may be found to
belong here likewise.
Judging from F. C. Baker's notes (The Fresh Water Mollusca
of Wisconsin, Pt. I, Gastropoda, Bull. Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Sur-
vey, 70, 1928), from which I also have derived the data referring
to jaw and radula, all the species and their varieties which are re-
garded above as certainly belonging to Pleurovalvata, are found in
lakes. Only the var. helicoidea Ball of lewisi is reported from a
slough, and it is worth mentioning that in this non-lacustrine form
the sculpture is often obsolete. Thus the ecological distribution of
the members of this new subgenus Pleurovalvata helps to support my
theory that lacustrine environmental conditions are in some way
connected with the development of shell-sculpture.
AFFINITY OF PAPUINA GLOBULA
Papuina globula I. Rensch, Zool. Anz., 92, p. 226, fig. 1, 1930; von Benthem-
Jutting, Nova Guinea, 17, Zool., p. 43, 1933.
The original locality for this species is given as "Pulie-Fluss, Kap
Merkus, Neu-Pommern." Field Museum has a series of 11 speci-
mens (Cat. No. 11707) from Pelilo Island, near Cape Merkus,
southwestern New Britain (=Neu Pommern) collected by A. B. Lewis
during the Joseph N. Field Anthropological Expedition, 1909-13.
These specimens leave no doubt that globula is very closely allied to
Papuina fringiUa Pfr. from New Georgia, Solomon Islands, and
from the Admiralty Islands, and that it is probably only an albino
geographical race of it. I. Rensch (I.e.) suggests that Crystallus
fictilia Clapp (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 397, pi. 4, figs. 1-3,
1923) from Anki, Malaita Island, Solomon Islands, may be identical
with P. globula, but this view cannot be supported, Clapp's species
apparently being a member of the subgenus Crystallopsis, whereas
globula proves to be a true Papuina. It is listed in Field Museum's
collection as Papuina fringilla globula I. Rensch.
IDENTITY OF PLACOSTYLUS (LEUCOCHARIS) DORSEYI
The species mentioned was described in 1910 (Field Mus., Zool.
Ser., 7, p. 219, pi. 4, fig. 1). Dall had only one specimen before him,
the type (Field Mus. No. 11254), which came from Anair Island,
1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 103
near New Ireland, Solomon Islands; the author considered his
new species to be "by far the smallest and most delicate species of
When reviewing Field Museum's collection of Melanesian land
shells, I was surprised to find that Dall had attributed the small,
delicate species he had described, to Placostylus, for it obviously is a
Partula and, furthermore, a form closely related to P. flexuosa
Hartman. I do not hesitate, therefore, to remove it from Placostylus
and to write it Partula (Melanesica) flexuosa dorseyi Dall, since it
may be subspecifically different from typical flexuosa, coming from
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